19 Jan 2020

Last week I wrote about how capnproto-rust might relax its memory alignment requirements and what the performance cost of that might look like. The ensuing discussion taught me that memory alignment issues can be thornier than I had thought, and it strengthened my belief that capnproto-rust users ought be shielded from such issues. Since then, working with the helpful feedback of many people, I have implemented what I consider to be a satisfactory resolution to the problem. Today I’m releasing it as part of capnproto-rust version 0.12. The new version not only provides a safe interface for unaligned memory, but also maintains high performance for aligned memory.

New Feature Flag

Cargo supports a feature-flags mechanism, whereby a crate can declare parts of its functionality to be optional, with enablement or disablement happening at compile time.

As of version 0.12, the capnp crate has a new feature flag called unaligned. When unaligned is enabled, capnp makes no assumptions about the alignment of its data. In particular, it can read a message in place from any array of bytes via read_message_from_flat_slice().

On the flip side, when unaligned is not enabled, capnp requires that message segments are 8-byte aligned, returning an error if it detects that’s not the case. The 8-byte alignment is then used whenever capnp loads or stores a primitive value in a message.

With the new interface, there is no longer a need for the problematic unsafe fn Word::bytes_to_words(), so that method no longer exists.

Performance

The downside of enabling the unaligned feature is that some operations require more instructions on certain compilation targets. To better understand the performance cost, I ran capnproto-rust’s benchmark suite on three different computers: my laptop (x86_64), an EC2 ARM64 instance (aarch64), and a Raspberry Pi Zero (armv6). I compared three different capnproto-rust versions: 0.11, 0.12, and 0.12 with unaligned.

As expected, on all of the computers the 0.12 version without the unaligned feature performed about the same version 0.11 (within measurement noise). When I enabled the unaligned feature, the only computer where there was a noticeable performance impact was the Raspberry Pi, where the benchmarks slowed down between 10 and 20 percent. This also was within my expectations, though I had been hoping it would be lower. (If the performance impact had been negligible, I would likely not have bothered to make unaligned an optional feature; instead I would have made it the only supported mode.)

Validation

Following ralfj’s suggestion, I also performed some testing with miri to increase my confidence that there is no lurking undefined behavior. I added some tests that specifically force 1-byte alignment.

I was pleasantly surprised to learn how easy it is to run miri these days:

$ rustup component add miri
$ cargo miri test

I recommend that you try this on your own projects!

-- posted by dwrensha

capnproto-rust on github
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